For centuries, people have wondered aboutthe strange things that they dream about. Some psychologists say that thisnighttime activity of the mind has no special meaning. Others, however, thinkthat dreams arena important part of our lives. In fact, many experts believethat dreams can tell us about a person’s mind and emotions.
Before modern times, many people thoughtthat dreams contained messages from God. ___E________ (46)
The Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud,was probably the first person to study dreams scientifically. In his famousbook, The interpretation of Dreams (1900), Freud wrote that dreams arean expression of a person’s wishes. He believed that dreams allow people to expressthe feelings, thoughts, and fears that they are afraid to express in real life.
The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung was once astudent of Freud’s. Jung, however, had a different idea about dreams. Jungbelieved that the purpose of a dream was to communicate a message to thedreamer. ______F_____(47) For example, people who dream about falling may learnthat they have too high an opinion of themselves. On the other hand, people whodream about being heroes may learn that they think too little of themselves.
Modern-day psychologists continue todevelop theories about dreams. For example, psychologist William Domhoff fromthe University of California, Santa Cruz, believes that dreams are tightlylinked to a person’s daily life, thoughts, and behavior. ______C_____(48)
Domhoff believes that there is a connectionbetween dreams and age. His research shows that children do not dream as muchas adults. According to Domhoff, dreaming is a mental skill that needs time todevelop.
He has also found a link between dreams andgender. His studies show that the dreams of men and women are different. ____A_______(49)Thisis not true of women’s dreams. Domhoff found this gender difference in thedreams of people from 11 cultures around the world, including both modern and traditionalones.
Can dreams help us understand ourselves?Psychologists continue to try to answer this question in different ways._____D______(50)The dream may have meaning, but it does not mean that someterrible event will actually take place. It’s important to remember that theworld of dreams is not the real world.
A. For example, the people in men's dreamsare often other men, and the dreams often involve fighting.
B. Men and women dream about differentthings.
C. A criminal, for example, might dream aboutcrime.
D. However, one thing they agree on this:If you dream that something terrible is going to occur, you shouldn't panic.
E. It was only in the twentieth centurythat people started to study dreams in a scientific way.
F. He thought people could learn more aboutthemselves bythinking about their dreams.