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ACCA管理会计(MA )常考公式归纳

来源: 中华会计网校 编辑:小编 2020/07/27  字体:

MA作为ACCA考试科目中较为基础的一门学科,其考试内容也比较简单,没有很多复杂的案例解析,因此学员可通过传统的记忆、背诵就可通过考试。以下为中华会计网校给大家汇总的MA科目中常见的公式,以供学员学习参考:

1.     Equation of a straight line

  y = a + bx

l y = total costs

l a = the fixed cost for the given period

l b = the variable cost per unit

l x = the number of units of activity


2. High-low method

  Step 1 – select the highest and lowest activity levels, and their associated costs

Step 2 – find the variable cost per unit

Step 3 – find the fixed cost by substitution, using either the high or low activity level.


  total cost at high activity level – total cost at low activity level

Variable cost per unit=  

total units at high activity level – total units at low activity level


Fixed cost = (total cost at high activity level) – (total units at high activity level × variable cost per unit)


3.     Free inventory balance

Materials in inventory

+ Materials on order from suppliers

- Materials requisitioned, not yet issued

= Free inventory balance


4.     Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

(Given in the exams)

Co = cost of placing one order

Ch = cost of holding one unit for one year

D = annual demand for stock item

Q = the order quantity


5.     Economic Batch Quantity (EBQ)

 

(Given in the exams)

Q = the amount produced in each batch

D = demand per annum

Ch = cost of holding one unit for one year

Co = cost of setting up a batch ready to be produced

R = the production rate per time period (which must exceed the inventory usage)

6.     Total Wages

Total wages = (hours worked × basic rate of pay per hour) + (overtime hours worked × overtime premium per hour)


7.     Labor Turnover

               No. of leavers who require replacement

Labor turnover = ---------------------------------------------- ----------------- X 100%

                    Average No. of employees


8. Labor Efficiency


Expected hours to produce actual output (standard hours)    

Efficiency ratio = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- × 100%

                        Actual hours to produce output

No. of hours spent working (active production)  

Capacity ratio = --------------------------------------------------------------------------× 100%

                    Total hours available (budgeted)



Expected hours to produce actual output (standard hours)  

Production volume ratio= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------× 100%

                            Total hours available (budgeted)


9.     Absorption Rate

                Overhead costs    

Absorption rate = -------------------------------------

                  Volume of activity


                                    Budgeted production overhead  

Predetermined overhead absorption rate =-------------------------------------------------

Budgeted production activity


10.     Marginal production cost

Marginal production cost = direct materials + direct labor + variable production overhead

Contribution = Sales – Variable cost

10. Marginal costing VS Absorption costing

If stock levels are rising, AC profit > MC profit

If stock levels are falling, AC profit < MC profit

If opening and closing stock levels are the same, AC profit = MC profit

Difference in profit = Change in inventory level × Fixed overheads absorption per unit


11. Conversion cost

Conversion cost = direct labor + production overheads


12. Correlation Coefficient


                                              (Given in the exams)


Where x and y represent pairs of data for two variables x and y

n = the number of pairs of data used in the analysis

Interpretation:

R = +1 perfect positive linear correlation

R between 0 and +1, positive correlation

R=0 no correlation

R between 0 and -1, negative correlation

R = -1 perfect negative linear correlation


13. Interest

l Simple interest

 

Where: V =Future value

            X =Initial investment (present value)

          r = Interest rate (expressed as a decimal)

            n = Number of time periods

l Compound interest

 

Where: V =Future value

    X =Initial investment (present value)

    r = Interest rate (expressed as a decimal)

      n = Number of time periods

l Effective interest rate

 

Where: r = Effective interest rate

            i = Nominal interest rate

            n = Number of time periods


14. IRR (using linear interpolation)

  The steps in linear interpolation are:

(1)   Calculate two NPVs for the project at two different costs of capital

(2)   Using the following formula to find the IRR

Where: L = Lower rate of interest

            H = Higher rate of interest

           

= NPV at lower rate of interest

= NPV at higher rate of interest


15. Payback Period

Payback period =


16. Annuity

PV = Annual cash flow X Annuity Factor

Annuity Factor:  


17. Perpetuity


is known as the perpetuity factor


IRR of a perpetuity =


18. Variance

l Material price variance = Actual materials bought       should cost-Did cost

l Material usage variance = (Actual output produced should use-Did use) × Standard price

l Labor rate variance = Actual hours worked should cost-Did cost

l Labor efficiency variance = (Actual output produced should take-Did take)   ×Standard rate

l Variable overhead expenditure variance = Actual hours worked should cost-Did cost

l Variable overhead efficiency variance = (Actual output produced should take-Did take)× standard rate

l Fixed overhead absorption rate = budgeted fixed overhead / budgeted activity level

l Fixed overhead expenditure variance = Budget expenditure - Actual expenditure

l Fixed overhead volume variance = (Budget production volume in standard hours - Actual production volume in standard hours) × standard fixed overhead rate

l Fixed overhead volume Capacity variance = (actual hrs worked – budgeted hrs) × absorption rate

l Fixed overhead volume Efficiency variance = (standard hrs worked for actual production - actual hrs worked) × absorption rate

l Sales price variances = Actual sales units × ( Budget price - Actual price)

l Sales volume variances

(Budget sales units - Actual sales units) × standard profit per unit (Absorption costing)

                                              Or × standard contribution per unit (Marginal costing)


19. Profitability measures

l Gross profit margin = Gross profit /Turnover

l Net profit margin= Net profit /Turnover

l ROCE=Profit/capital employed

*Capital employed =total assets – current liabilities

                =total equity plus long-term debt

Profit =profit before interest and tax (PBIT)

l Asset turnover= sales × capital employed.

l ROCE =net profit margin ×asset turnover


l Residual Income

RI=Controllable profit —Notional interest on capital

Notional interest on capital = the capital employed X a notional cost of capital or interest rate.


20. Liquidity measures

l Current ratio= current assets/ current liability

l Quick ratio = (current assets-inventory) / current liability

l Receivable collection period =trade receivables ÷ sales × 365 days

l Inventory turnover period=inventory ÷ cost of sales × 365 days

l Inventory turnover=Cost of sales ÷ inventory

l Account payable payment period = (payables/purchases) ×365 days

l Working capital period= (working capital/cost of sales) ×365 days

or = (working capital/ operating costs) ×365 days

l


21. Cost per unit of process outputs


Process cost



=


$( cost incurred - scrap value of normal loss - NRV of by-product

                  + disposal cost of normal loss)

Expected output


      Input - normal loss


22. Concept of equivalent units

          The FIFO method

          Cost incurred in current period

Cost per EU = _______________________________________________________________

            Opening WIP *(1- 上期完工率) + 本期开工且完工产品 + Closing WIP*本期完工率

          Weighted average method

            Cost of opening WIP in last period + Cost incurred in current period

Cost per EU = _______________________________________________________________

            Opening WIP + 本期开工且完工产品 + Closing WIP*本期完工率


——————————————

以上内容由中华会计网校原创整理、汇总编辑,转载请注明出处。中华会计网校拥有众多专业的ACCA教学老师为广大学员提供7x24H在线答疑服务,独有一键预约电话回访系统解您后顾之忧!更多资讯欢迎点我咨询!如需了解更多A考知识点欢迎点击>此处查看


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